Sabtu, 21 Mei 2011


The complete predicate consists of all the words that say something about the subject.
The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or group of words in the complete predicate.
EXAMPLES          The pilot broke the sound barrier.
Complete predicate  broke the sound barrier.:
Complete predicat (verb) broke
We should have visited the diamond field in .
Complete predicate  should have visited the diamond field in .
Simple predicate  should have visited
In this book, the simple predicate is usually referred to as the verb.
Identifying Complete Predicates and Verbs
Identify the complete predicate of each of the following sentences. Then, underline the verb.
EXAMPLE      1. Nobody knows the creator of the flag.
                         1. knows the creator of the flag.
1.  Scholars are unsure about the history of the Stars and Stripes.
2. The Continental Congress approved a design for the flag.
3. The design included thirteen reel stripes and thirteen white stripes.
4. The top inner quarter of the flag was a blue field with thirteen white stars.
5. The name of the designer remains a mystery.
6. During the American Revolution, the colonists needed a symbol of their independence.
7. George Washington wanted flags for the army.
8. Unfortunately, the flags did not arrive until after the Revolutionary War.
9. According to legend. Betsy Ross made the first flag.
10. Historians doubt the Betsy Ross story.


To identify adverbs and the words they modify in sentences and in paragraphs
To supply adverbs to complete a paragraph
To write a brief informative description that includes adverbs

Broadway or . [7] Others remain happy at the: Traveling Theatre, where they enjoy the warm, support-! ive atmosphere.
[8] Each production by the Traveling Theatre has its! own style. [9] Some shows are musicals, full of song and' dance, while other plays seem more serious. I10J Light or] serious, Puerto Rican Traveling Theatre productions rjrej sent a lively picture of Hispanic life today.
Quick Reminder
Write the following paragraph on the chalkboard and have students iden­tify the adverb in each sentence:
Detergent breaks down slowly in the environment. It often contaminates the air and water. Vinegar and baking soda clean effectively and do not harm the environment.
The Adverb
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
An adverb answers the following questions:
Where?                  How often?                          To what extent?
When?                   or                                           or
How?                     How long?                            How much?
The sprinter ran swiftly[Sweeply is an adverb modifying the verb ran; it tells how.]
Jolene was comforting a very small child. 'Very Is an adverb modifying the adjective small; it tell to what ektent.]
The fire blazed too wildly for anyone to enter [Too is an adverb modifying the adverb wildly, it tells to what ekant Wildly  is an adverb modifying the verb blazed; it tell verb quotes; it tell how often]
Dad often quotes from Bishop Desmond Tutu's speech [often Is an adverb modifying the verb put it tells where later is an adverb quotes; it tell how often]
Put the apples there, and we'll eat them later.[ There is an adverb modifying the verb put it tells where later is an adverb modifying the verb eat. It tell when]
away, here, inside, there, up
ago, later, now, soon, then
clearly, easily, quietly, slowly
To what extent? Or How
almost, so, too, more, least extremely, quite
The word not is nearly always used as an adverb to modify a verb. When not is part of a contraction, as in hadn't, aren't, and didn't, the -n't is still an adverb and is not part of the verb.

Adverb anived Adject

adverbs and Adjectives
Many adverbs end in -ly. These adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives.
Adjective             + -ly = Adverb          
clear                       + -ly = clearly 
quiet                       + -ly = quietly
However,  some words ending in  -ly are used as adjectives.
Adjectives Ending in -ly
daily     friendly     lonely
early     kindly        timely
If you aren't sure whether a word is an adjective or an adverb, ask yourself what it modifies. If a word modifies a noun or a pronoun, it is an adjective.
General Strategies. You may discover that students use the adverbs very and too interchangeably. Explain that very means extremely, whereas too means excessively. You could offer extra practice to help students distinguish between these two adverbs. Work with students to complete the following sen­tences by supplying either very + an adjective or too + an adjective:
1. Pepperoni pizza is __.
2. I find English class ——.
3. My best friend is __.
4. Rock music is __.
5. Summer weather can be ——.
6. These settlers totally ignored the Cherokees' right to the land.
7. In fact, many Cherokees had fought bravely for the settlers against the British.
8. Still, the Cherokee were forced by the government to leave their land.
9. The people were hardly given a chance to collect their belongings.
10. Many Cherokees will never forget the "Trail of Tears" that led their ancestors to .
The Position of Adverbs
One of the characteristics of adverbs is that they may appear at various places in a sentence. Adverbs may come before, after, or between the words they modify.
EXAMPLES   We often study together.
We study together often.
Often we study together.
When an adverb modifies a verb phrase, it frequently comes in the middle of the phrase.
EXAMPLE             We have often studied together.
An adverb that introduces a question, however, must be placed at the beginning of a sentence.
EXAMPLES   When does your school start? [The adverb when modifies the verb phrase does start. ]
         How did you spend your vacation? [The adverb how modifies the verb phrase did spend.}
exercise 12    Identifying Adverbs
Identify the twenty adverbs and the words they modify in the following paragraphs.
EXAMPLE   [1] "To Build a Fire" is a dramatically suspenseful
   short story.
1.  dramatically—suspenseful
As a supplementary activity, you may wish to have students write an answer to the question at the end of Exercise 12. Encourage students to read the story as a follow-up.
Exercise 13
Responses will vary. Only adverbs that answer certain questions can go in each blank.
1. how or how often
2. to what extent or how often
3. where or how
4. to what extent or how
5. how or when or how often
6. how or to what extent
7. how
8. how or when
9. where or how
10. how or to what extent
Completely —alone/alone —is traveling [1] "To Build a Fire" is probably one of Jack London's best stories. [2] In this story, a nameless character outdoors on a terribly cold day in the . [3] Except forf a dog, he is traveling completely alone to a mining camp.! [4] Foolishly confident of his ability to survive the unusu ally: harsh cold, he does not understand the dangers of the!
northern wilderness.     6. fearfully —slinks/along —slinks
|5] The dog knows instinctively that they are in a bad situation. [6] It slinks fearfully along at the man's! heels and seems to question his every movement. [7] Soon both the dog's muzzle and the man's beard are frosted with ice. [8] Along the way, the man accidentally falls into a hid-1 den stream. [91 Desperately, he builds a fire under a tree] to avoid frostbite. [10] The flames slowly grow stronger.[11] Unfortunately, he has built his fire in the wrong placej {12] A pile of snow suddenly falls from a tree limb and kills! the fire. [13] Unable to relight the fire, the man again finds j himself in serious trouble. [14] Based on what you now| know about the story, what kind of ending would you] write for "To Build a Fire"?
Exercise 13   Writing Adverbs
Supply ten different adverbs to fill the blanks in the fol-] lowing paragraph.
EXAMPLE    [1 ] I have.been a real music lover.
        1. a/ways
Every Friday I [U __ go to the record store. I can! [2] __ wait to see what new cassettes and CDs havef arrived. As soon as school is out, I bicycle [3] __ to the* store and join other [4] __ enthusiastic customers. [5] I stroll through the aisles and [6] __ study the selections. I listen [7] __ as the loudspeaker announces the da/S; specials. When I have decided what I want, I [83 —— figure out which items I can afford. Then I walk [9] __ to the cash register. I grin [10] __as I think of how much I will enjoy the music.